The CEOS project delivers a reliable and secure system of inspections of pieces of works using professional mini-drone for Operators of Vital Importance coupled with their Geographical Information System. These inspections are carried out automatically at a lower cost than current solutions employing helicopters or off-road vehicles.

Logo of CEOSValidation of the solution, in cooperation with the DGAC, is carried out on private test areas and then on the sites of end-users partners: ENEDIS (medium voltage overhead powerlines), EDF (penstock pipes in mountain areas) and airports of Lyon and Caen-Carpiquet (fences surrounding the airport).

The CEOS system is composed of a mini drone and its ground station provided by the Alerion SME. Several software applications are developed, adapted and integrated on the drone, within an innovative multi-criticality architecture and mixed criticality using multi-core hardware and a hypervisor certifiable on the shelf: detection of anomalies by image analysis by the ADCIS SME, resilient and secure communications from the drone to the GIS by THALES and the ESIEE, control by the RTaW SME and 3D corridor navigation by the University of Lorraine. The architecture developed by INRIA and ESIEE guarantees the real-time operation of the most critical functions, in this case the control and navigation of the drone, to the detriment of the other functions. This is a compromise between too expensive certification and oversized hardware.

Upcoming events

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Project name

Céos (French name for Coeus or Koios) is a titan and giant of the Greek mythology, god of intelligence (“who knows / thinks”). He also defines the line around which constellations turn. Here, CEOS refers to the artificial intelligence associated with the drone to inspect and move.

Drone flying in front of Coeus appearing among the stars at night


Logo of Systematic FUI/FEDER FUI22
CEOS (GT OCDS) is a project labeled Systematic during the 22nd call for projects of the FUI (Single Inter-Ministry Fund; French R&D fund for competitiveness clusters).
Joint criticality for communicative critical embedded systems
Label: Systematic
Co-label: Move’o, Materalia
Leader: Thales SIX GTS France
Contact: Stéphane MENORET <>
Start date: May 1st, 2017
Duration: 44 months (end in December 2020)
Cost: 4.56 M€
R&D in region Île-de-France cost : 2.5 M€
Aids: 1.95 M€

Main characteristics of the project

  • Automatic out-of-sight flights supervised by an operator
  • Automatic detection and recognition of infrastructure during flights by on-board artificial intelligence to guide shots
  • Automatic detection and characterization of faults after flights by artificial intelligence
  • Redundant and secure 4G air-ground communications

The drone

Performance and features

Take-off weight:25 kgs
Dimension:Distance between motors: 1150 mm
Height: 800mm
Power:LiPo 12S 44 Ah (2x2 LiPo 6S 22 Ah in series)
Maximum thrust:70 kgs
Take-off maximum weight:30 kgs
Maximum thrust versus weight ratio:2.8 at 0 meter altitude / 2.1 at 2500 meters altitude
Range at 25km/h:5.6 kms (in 12 minutes)
Maximum speed:75 kms/h
Hovering power:4.2 kW
Maximum power:17.8 kW
Emergency systems:Parachute + engines cut
Drone impact energy with emergency systems:250 J
Transportation:Foldable drone on the length
Transportation volume: 1150 x 250 x 400 mm

Main sensors

  • Canon EOS 5DS-R (50 Mpixels)
  • IDS camera
  • BASLER camera
  • Lightware LIDAR
  • IR Lock

Actions realized


  • A hardware and software integration session with several drone flights took place in February 2020 in Nancy validating the following points :
    • LTE coverage up to 1200m in NLOS
    • GPS RTK operational with metric accuracy
  • The CEOS project and in particular the contribution of artificial intelligence for automated inspection was presented on March 3, 2020 as part of the European robotics forum ERF 2020 during the Workshop on Aerial Intelligent Robotics for Inspection and Maintenance.
  • A plenary meeting of the CEOS project was to be held at Caen-Carpiquet airport on March 23 and 24, 2020. A flight authorization was requested so that tests of automated inspection of fences by a drone are carried out in the presence of project partners and invited persons. However, as part of the national effort to combat COVID-19, the day of presentation of the CEOS project at Caen-Carpiquet airport on March 24, 2020 has been postponed to 27 and 28 July.


  • Caen Carpiquet Airport (AdC) joins the CEOS consortium, April 2019
  • CEOS attended the international Paris air show at le Bourget, from 17 to 23 June 2019. Come on to visit us at booth!
  • CEOS attended the CDC 2019 forum (The Council for Civilian UAVs), on 9 July 2019 at the large hall of DGAC.
  • Two hardware integration sessions in October and December 2019 validated the following points:
    • Hovering with gimbal and Canon EOS 50D camera
    • Thales LTE with QoS communication
    • Gimbal driving using Tegra X2
    • Images acquisition from ground by using Canon EOS 50D camera
    • Ground reception of the video stream for navigation from the BASLER camera via Thales LTE
    • Ground reception of PX4 telemetry on QGroundControl via Thales LTE
  • Two expert researchers in the embedded sector decided to create the startup Statinf (fr) in December 2019 in order to immediately exploit the results obtained by INRIA within the framework of the CEOS project. The Startup was immediately accepted into the Agoranov incubator (fr) and the Wilco accelerator and was also a laureate of the French 2019 Carnot Prize (fr). The CEOS partners want the results of the project to be used and exploited quickly.


  • System test campaign from 3rd to 6th April 2018 on the ENEDIS site in Heillecourt, Lorraine
  • RTCSA2018 - IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, Aug 2018, Hakodate, Japan. Proceedings of the 24th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications
  • ADCIS completely revised its website at the end of 2018 and decided to highlight its image processing activity related to the drone. A section of the site is dedicated to the CEOS project. ADCIS also regularly communicates on its social networks about project news. As the ADCIS part of the project is partially funded by Feder and the European Commission, numerous announcements have been made to the Normandy Region and the EEC.


  • Scientific organization of a Dagstuhl seminar
  • The partners and objectives of the CEOS project have been presented to ADP (Aéroports de Paris) and DSNA (direction des Services de la navigation aérienne) services
  • A presentation was made during the S3P Alliance day to all S3P project partners
  • Scientific organization of an international workshop on real-time composition CRTS2017
  • Organization for the first time in France of RTSS2017 real-time domain conference



  1. "A Survey of Probabilistic Timing Analysis Techniques for Real-Time Systems" - R. DAVIS, L. CUCU-GROSJEAN. - Leibniz Transactions on Embedded Systems 6, 1, Jan 2020, pp. 60
  2. "Work-in-Progress:System-wide DVFS for real-time systems with probabilistic parameters" - R.MEDINA,L.CUCU-GROSJEAN. - Real-Time System Symposium, York, United Kingdom, February 2020


  1. "An hypervisor approach for mixed critical real-time UAV applications" - T. FAUTREL, L. GEORGE, F. FAUBERTEAU, T. GRANDPIERRE - in Workshop on UNmanned aerial vehicle Applications in the Smart City: from Guidance technology to enhanced system Interaction (UNAGI), Co-located with Percom 2019, Kyoto, March 11-15, Japan
  2. "A Survey of Probabilistic Schedulability Analysis Techniques for Real-Time Systems" - R. DAVIS, L. CUCU-GROSJEAN. - Leibniz Transactions on Embedded Systems 6, 1, June 2019, pp. 53
  3. "Monitor-Centric Mission Definition with Sophrosyne" - L. VIARD, L. CIARLETTA, P.-E. MORREAU - Presentation during the Regular Session "Risk & Reliability" at ICUAS 2019, June 2019, Athens, Greece
  4. "A method for parallel scheduling of multi-rate co-simulation on multi-core platforms" - S. E. SAIDI, N. PERNET, Y. SOREL. - Oil & Gas Science and Technology - Revue d’IFP Energies nouvelles, 74, 2019, pp. 49, May 2019
  5. The temporal correlation of data in a multi- rate system - E. NTARYAMIRA, C. MAXIM, L. CUCU-GROSJEAN. - RTNS’2019 - 27th International Conference on Real-Time Networks and Systems, Toulouse, France, November 2019
  6. "Worst-case response time analysis for partitioned fixed-priority DAG tasks on identical processors" - S. BEN-AMOR, L. CUCU-GROSJEAN, D. MAXIM. - ETFA 2019 - 24th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, IEEE, pp. 1423 – 1426, Zaragoza, Spain, December 2019
  7. "Data consistency and temporal validity under the circular buffer communication paradigm" - E. NTARYAMIRA, C. MAXIM, L. CUCU-GROSJEAN. - RACS ’19 - Conference on Research in Adaptive and Convergent Systems, ACM Press, pp. 51–56, Chongqing, China, December 2019
  8. "Time Triggered Offline Scheduling of Data Dependent Real-Time Tasks Accounting for the Preemption and Scheduler Cost" - Y. SOREL, F. NDOYE, W. TALABOULMA, M. MEZOUAK, L. CUCU-GROSJEAN. - Research Report number RR-9318, Inria Paris, December 2019


  1. "Guest editorial: special issue on real time and network systems." - L. CUCU-GROSJEAN, N. FISHER. - Real-Time Systems, Springer Verlag, 2018, 54 (3), pp.605-606
  2. "On the analysis of random replacement caches using static probabilistic timing methods for multi-path programs." - B. LESAGE, S. ALTMEYER, D. GRIFFIN, L. CUCU-GROSJEAN, R. DAVIS. - Real-Time Systems, Springer Verlag, 2018, 54 (2), pp.307-388
  3. "Latency analysis for data chains of real-time periodic tasks." - T. KLODA, A. BERTOUT, Y. SOREL. - ETFA'2018 - IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, Sep 2018, Torino, Italy. Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA’18
  4. "Scheduling Real-time HiL Co-simulation of Cyber-Physical Systems on Multi-core Architectures." - S. E. SAIDI, N. PERNET, Y. SOREL.
  5. "Ensuring data freshness for periodic real-time tasks" - E. NTARYAMIRA, C. MAXIM, L. CUCU-GROSJEAN. - The 12th Junior Researcher Workshop on Real-Time Computing, 2018, Poitiers, France. 2018
  6. "Response time analysis for precedence constrained and partitioned multiprocessor scheduled tasks" - S. BEN-AMOR, L. CUCU-GROSJEAN, D. MAXIM. - JWRTC 2018 - 12th Junior Researcher Workshop on Real-Time Computing, Oct 2018, Poitiers, France. 2018
  7. "Towards temporal constraints in self driving cars." - E. NTARYAMIRA, C. MAXIM, C. FLORES, L. CUCU-GROSJEAN. - RTSOPS 2018 - 9th International Real-Time Scheduling Open Problems Seminar, Jul 2018, Barcelone, Spain. 2018
  8. "Probabilistic parallel real-time tasks model on multiprocessor platform." - S. BEN-AMOR, L. CUCU-GROSJEAN - RTSOPS 2018 - 9th International Real-Time Scheduling Open Problems Seminar, Jul 2018, Barcelone, Spain., 2018, pp.1-2
  9. "Automatic Parallelization and Scheduling Approches for Co-simulation of Numerical Models on Multi-core Processors." - S. E. SAIDI. - Embedded Systems. Université Sorbonne, 2018.


  1. "Open Challenges for Probabilistic Measurement-Based Worst-Case Execution Time" – S. J. GIL, I. BATE, G. LIMA, L. SANTINELLI, A. GOGONEL, L. CUCU-GROSJEAN. – IEEE Embedded Systems Letters, June 2017, vol. 9, n°3, pp. pages 69 - 72
  2. "On the analysis of random replacement caches using static probabilistic timing methods for multi-path programs" – B. LESAGE, S. ALTMEYER, D. GRIFFIN, L. CUCU-GROSJEAN, R. DAVIS. – Real-Time Systems / Real Time Systems; The Journal of Real-Time Systems, 2017, pp. 1-82
  3. "Probabilistic Analysis for Mixed Criticality Systems using Fixed Priority Preemptive Scheduling" – D. I. MAXIM, R. DAVIS, L. I. CUCU-GROSJEAN, A. EASWARAN. – RTNS 2017 - International Conference on Real- Time Networks and Systems, Grenoble, France, October 2017
  4. "Automatic parallelization of multi-rate fmi-based co-simulation on multi- core" – S. E. SAIDI, N. PERNET, Y. SOREL. – TMS/DEVS 2017 - Symposium on Theory of Modeling and Simulation, Virginia Beach, United States, ACM, April 2017
  5. "Schedulability analysis of dependent probabilistic real-time tasks" – S. BEN-AMOR, D. MAXIM, L. CUCU. – MAPSP 2017 - 13th Workshop on Models and Algorithms for Planning and Scheduling Problems, Seeon- Seebruck, Germany, RTNS ’16 Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Real-Time Networks and Systems, ACM, June 2017, pp. 99-107
  6. "Probabilistic foundations for the time predictions of cyber-physical systems" – L. CUCU-GROSJEAN, A. GOGONEL. – MMR 2017 - 10th International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Reliability, Grenoble, France, July 2017
  7. "Towards statistical estimation of worst case inter-core communications, October 2017" – A. REVUZ, L. CUCU-GROSJEAN. – JRWRTC 2017 - 11th Junior Researcher Workshop on Real-Time Computing
  8. "A hypervisor schedulability analysis for safety and security critical applications scheduled in arbitrary patterns of slots" – T. FAUTREL, L. GEORGE, F. FAUBERTEAU. – Proceedings of the 11th Junior Researcher Workshop on Real-Time Computing, JRWRTC 2017, Grenoble, Oct 2017, France.
  9. "Reproducibility and representativity: mandatory properties for the compositionality of measurement-based WCET estimation approaches" – C. MAXIM, A. GOGONEL, I. ASAVOAE, M. ASAVOAE, L. CUCU-GROSJEAN. – ACM SIGBED Review, November 2017, vol. 14, n°3, pp. 24 - 31
  10. "pWCET estimator for real-time systems" – A. GOGONEL, C. MAXIM, L. CUCU-GROSJEAN. – RTSS 2017 - IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, Paris, France, December 2017
  11. "Analysis and Simulation Tools for Probabilistic Real-Time Systems" – D. MAXIM, A. BERTOUT. – 8th Inter- national Workshop on Analysis Tools and Methodologies for Embedded and Real-time Systems (WATERS)
  12. "Probabilistic schedulability analysis" – D. MAXIM, L. CUCU-GROSJEAN, R. DAVIS. – Handbook on Real-Time Computing, A. EASWARAN (editor), Handbook on Real-Time Computing, Springer, 2017
  13. "Mixed Criticality on Multicore / Manycore Platforms (Dagstuhl Seminar 17131)" – L. CUCU-GROSJEAN, R. DAVIS, S. K. BARUAH, Z. STEPHENSON (editors). – Schloss Dagstuhl, 2017, pp. 70-98
  14. "Keynote Talk, Probabilities - a key solution for tomorrow real-time compositional frameworks" – L. CUCU-GROSJEAN. – International Workshop on Compositional Theory and Technology for Real-Time Embedded Systems, CRTS’2017, Paris, Dec 2017, France
  15. "Selective Real-time Data Emission in Mobile Intelligent Transport Systems" – L. GEORGE, D. MASSON, V. NELLIS. – 5th International Workshop on Mixed Criticality Systems, WMC’2017, Paris, Dec. 2017, France

CEOS solution advantages

The project is in an experimental phase in the field for the various use cases for detecting defaults or usury:

The goal of the project is to carry out, using a drone, exhaustive, and automatic surveillance of all equipment and infrastructure elements.

This project brings an environmental gain because currently the airport fences are inspected by all-terrain vehicle and, in the case of medium voltage lines, surveillance is done in part by helicopter. Using a drone also limits the risks taken by response teams and the costs incurred.

The monitoring of penstocks requires the intervention of rope access technicians and the monitoring of medium voltage lines may require a walking inspection in wooded areas. The drone makes these surveillance tasks over long distances and difficult to access, less tedious.

Generally an exhaustive inspection can be done more regularly and the automation also brings a qualitative gain because the flight plan of the drone is reproducible.

Aids and fundings

This project is supported by bpifrance, regions, competitiveness clusters, and clusters:


Complementarity of partners

Figure to explain complementarity of partners


Figure to explain complementarity of partners

Scientific expertise

The partners in charge of communications, safety and robotics:

Outsourcing supplier

Partner supplier of the drone platform and experiments:

    supply the mini drone and its ground station
    Logo of ALERION
  • SYSGO;
    supply PikeOS hypervisor embeded in the drone
    Logo of SYSGO

Solution providers

Vision software component:

  • ADCIS;
    detection of anomalies using image analysis
    Logo of ADCIS

Supplier of platforms, and chains of tools:

Secure communication:

    secured communication between drone and GIS (with ESIEE)
    Logo of THALES


System users and testers for different types of inspection: